1. Splitting unit
The splitting process involves hydrolyzing fat with water to give crude split fatty acid (CSFA)and glycerin in the Sweetwater stream. The chemical reaction involved is: H2C – COOR H2C- OHHC – COOR + 3H2O ------> 3RCOOH + HC – OHH2C - COOR H2C- OH (oil) (water) (fatty acid) (glycerol)
The Oil is preheated to about 90°C dried and then sent through a High Pressure positive displacement pump into the bottom of the splitting column. Here it reacts with a high pressure countercurrent stream of water, similarly introduced through a high pressure pump. Reaction temperature of about 235°C is achieved by injection of High Pressure Steam at multiple points along the length of the column. Crude split fatty acid exits from the column top, passes through a flash vessel, where LP steam is generated. Then exchanges heat with incoming oil, and sent to storage or direct to distillation. Sweet Water containing 7 to 8% Glycerol, exits from the bottom of the splitter, passes through a flash vessel, where LP steam is generated, and then sent to treatment. Optionally the steam generated in the flash vessels can be used to concentrate the Sweet Water. Key operation issues are protection of the pressure let down valves and automated safety system to control any eventuality around the High Pressure column.
2. Distillation unit
The crude fatty acid passed on from the accumulation tank to heating coils to raise its temperature to (70 C), then it enters the distiller that works on (250 C) heat and vacuum of (5 Mbar), Acids evaporate inside the distiller, the evaporated acids goes to the vaporizer (a Heat exchanger) that works on (50 C) heat, the cool down in the vaporizer done by water which lead to retraction in the white colored fatty acids. This product called (distilled fatty acids), inside the distiller remain heavy oil (pitches) and it pumped to a separated tank.
3. Sweat water fixation unitThe Sweetwater contains some dissolved and emulsified fat. This is first treated with dilute HCL to remove emulsified fat and then lime (CaOH) and soda (Na2CO3) to remove the dissolved fat as precipitated calcium soap. The process comprises tanks and filters.The treated Sweetwater is then concentrated to crude glycerin of 85-88% in a triple effect evaporator. Evaporators are operated under vacuum, maintained by a vacuum pump.
4. Glycerin distillation unit
The (88%) glycerin pumped to the distillation unit. This unit works on (5 Mbar) vacuum, which will produce a (99.5 %) glycerin after fixation, and barreled directly.
Fatty Acid & Glycerin Units Equipment
Capacity & Other Information
All units are 316L SS
For a more detailed equipment list, click here.
Utility Specification (variation of ± 5 % on the parameters allowable)
5 - 7 bar g – pulsation free, oil free, moisture free
1 mg/ lit max.
4 bar g at Battery Limit
4 bar g at Battery Limit
380 V, 50 Hz, 3 phases
24V DC, 4–20mA
65 bar g
15 bar g
3 bar g
TemperatureΔT supply return
Any kind of Vegetables Oil can be used as the following:
(1113 Kg) of vegetables Oil will produce the following:
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