5 m3/hr liquid waste Incinerator Facility, Part of Complete Caprolactam Plant (IPP Stock #600883)
This Incinerator Facility is part of a Caprolactam Facility which includes all intermediate and byproduct plants. The facility starts with benzene and finishes with caprolactam and ammonium sulfate byproduct:
• Cyclohexane Plant – 79,000 MTPY
• Cyclohexanone Plant – 55,000 MTPY
• Oximation Plant – 62,000 MTPY
• Caprolactam Plant – 60,000 MTPY
• Ammonium Sulfate – 108,000 MTPY
• Incinerator – 5 m3/hr liquid waste
The facility had some upgrades over the years. The majority of the site shut down in 2009, but the cyclohexane unit ran until August 2013.
Documentation is complete and well-organized. Much of it is electronic and has already been shared with IPP.
DCS is by Yokogawa (Centum CS-3000) and is used in the Oximation, Caprolactam, Ammonia Sulfate and Incinerator Unit.The plant has been well-maintained and is still being kept up with a staff of four employees. There is a nitrogen pad on the process and they are turning the rotating equipment monthly. There are abundant spare parts available with the facility.
Utilities & Tank Farm
There are two incoming electrical feeders with automatic switching gear which is included in the plant sale. There are 13 transformers in the 1,000 to 2,000 kva range. The frequency for all electrical equipment in this facility is 60 Hz. There are three cooling tower cells with three Worthington cooling tower water pumps. The cooling tower is in poor condition, but the pumps are in good condition. There are four Trane chillers which appear to be about 300 tons of refrigeration capacity each. There is a 500 kW emergency generator driven with a diesel motor. There are two Centac instrument air compressors. The compressor is missing from one of the units. There are two diesel-driven fire water pumps capable of 18 bar discharge pressure. The flare is said to be 55 meters tall, but it appears to be much taller. There are about 17 major tanks in the tank farms. They are a mix of carbon steel and 304 stainless steel construction.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.
Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. While incineration and gasification technologies are similar in principle, the energy product from incineration is high-temperature heat whereas combustible gas is often the main energy product from gasification. Incineration and gasification may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery.
In several countries, there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators (see arguments against incineration).
In some countries, incinerators built just a few decades ago often did not include a materials separation to remove hazardous, bulky or recyclable materials before combustion. These facilities tended to risk the health of the plant workers and the local environment due to inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control. Most of these facilities did not generate electricity.
Incinerators reduce the solid mass of the original waste by 80–85% and the volume (already compressed somewhat in garbage trucks) by 95–96%, depending on composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling. This means that while incineration does not completely replace landfilling, it significantly reduces the necessary volume for disposal. Garbage trucks often reduce the volume of waste in a built-in compressor before delivery to the incinerator. Alternatively, at landfills, the volume of the uncompressed garbage can be reduced by approximately 70% by using a stationary steel compressor, albeit with a significant energy cost. In many countries, simpler waste compaction is a common practice for compaction at landfills.
Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or very toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant.
Waste combustion is particularly popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders in using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century, in localised combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes. In 2005, waste incineration produced 4.8% of the electricity consumption and 13.7% of the total domestic heat consumption in Denmark. A number of other European countries rely heavily on incineration for handling municipal waste, in particular Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany, and France.
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